The NAPLAN numeracy tests measure the achievement of students in numeracy. The main reference for numeracy as well as mathematical knowledge, skills and understanding is the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. The numeracy tests assess the proficiency strands of understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning across the three content strands of mathematics: number and algebra; measurement and geometry; and statistics and probability.

The numeracy tests contain two types of items: multiple-choice and constructed response. In Years 7 and 9, students will sit one numeracy test. This test will have two parts: one where calculator use is permitted and one where it is not.

The minimum standards for numeracy describe some of the skills and understandings students are generally expected to demonstrate at their particular year of schooling. The standards are intended to be a snapshot of typical achievement and do not describe the full range of what students are taught or what they may achieve. For further information on the national minimum standards see standards.